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Full text of "Poland Russia and Great Britain 1941-1945"

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" The world is fully aware that the Hitlerian Government authorities
are ruling over Poland on the surface only . . . That underground there
exists a tully organised State in every domain of political, military, social,
and economic life. The highest of these State authorities acting in the
n&ae of our country are resident in London.
" The Polish State has never ceased to exist, but its organisation has been
compelled to go undergrounds leaving on the surface only those factors,
who, in order to carry out their duties, have to act in the open.
On September 1, 1942;, a Decree was issued regarding the provisional organ-
isation of these authorities on the territories of the Polish Republic. The
Cabinet Minister, acting as a Representative (Delegat Krajowy) of the Gov-
ernment residing in London, has all the rights of the highest authorities in the
domain of state administration. The Representative of our Government
is authorised to issue temporary orders in cases when, according to the
existing law, the Premier, the Cabinet Council and the Ministers would have
issued them. This Representative of our Government carried out his
duties, with the help of his network of underground administration, acting
under instructions of the Government of the Polish Republic, and in full
co-operation with the Political Representation of the country and the
Commander of the Underground Army . . .
<e In this manner the legal' continuity of the authority of the Government
is assured in the Underground. The representative of the Government
in Poland fulfils the function of acting Prime Minister until such time as
he is able to return, just as in London, his deputy acts in the temporary
absence of the Prime Minister. This Minister, the representative of our
Polish Government, will, at the suitable time, disclose his name and place
of office in Poland ..."
A few months elapsed before state authority could be re-built in the
underground, and the structure of social life restored. The main network
was organised during the early days of 1940, and soon completed in the
summer of that year, for neither the collapse of France nor the great
German successes were able to shake the Poles' faith in the final victory
of the Allies.
Immediately after the defeat of Poland, when the Government had
left the territory of the Republic, the problem had arisen as to whether
the Headquarters of the Government should be established within the
country and the frame-work of the Underground state, or whether a
plenipotentiary, entrusted with a general delegation of authority, should
be appointed to reside within the country. The unquestionable traditions
of Poland's struggle for independence all spoke in favour of the first
alternative. The tradition of the 1863 Insurrection appealed with especial
force to the imagination of the Poles. In the end the second .alternative
was decided upon. Three factors contributed to the acceptance of this,
all of them were outside the control of the Polish people at home and
imposed by the general state of affairs.
To begin with, if state life had been organised with the Polish Govern-
ment remaining on Polish soil, but acting from underground, it would
have had difficulty in obtaining direct contact with the Allied Governments,
nor could it have easily carried on the country's foreign policy, owing to
the question of maintaining communications with tbe Polish diplomatic